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  • Writer's pictureMeena Sangar Assoc CIPD C-OKRP

The Art of Raising Capital: Navigating the Funding Stages of Tech Startups

Securing funding is a pivotal part of a tech start-up’s journey, with the potential to determine its growth trajectory. Navigating the intricacies of the funding lifecycle can often be challenging. This article aims to demystify the stages of start-up financing—pre-seed, seed, and beyond—and guide you to secure the necessary capital to propel your start-up forward.

Pre-Seed Funding

Pre-seed funding is the initial capital founders raise to transform their idea into a tangible business. It typically involves friends, family, and personal savings. Your start-up may have a partial product at this stage, but you would have a clear vision and preliminary research demonstrating its potential viability.

Key aspects to address during this stage are validating your idea, developing a basic prototype (if applicable), market research, and creating a comprehensive business plan. Articulate your vision compellingly, focusing on the problem your product is solving and the potential market size.

Seed Funding

Seed funding marks the first official equity funding stage. It's used to start building a team, finalising the product or service for the market, and taking the first steps towards a full-scale business operation. Angel investors, early-stage venture capitalists (VCs), and crowdfunding platforms are common sources of seed funding.

Before approaching investors, ensure you have a Minimum Viable Product (MVP), initial traction (like beta users, sign-ups, interest), and a more detailed business strategy. Investors want to see that you have validated your business proposition and have started gaining some momentum.

Series A, B, C, and Beyond

Series A funding is typically used to optimise your product and user base. It's common for tech startups to still operate at a loss during this stage. Investors participating in Series A funding are often traditional venture capital firms and seed investors who wish to continue supporting the startup.

Series B funding generally takes businesses to the next level, past the development stage. Start-ups at this point are expected to have a clear plan towards becoming a profitable enterprise, with solid evidence to back it up. Funding is used for talent acquisition, market expansion, or even acquisition of other businesses.

Series C funding and beyond usually involve injecting substantial capital into an already successful operation for scaling and expanding into new markets, acquiring businesses, or developing new products.

For these stages, data is critical. Investors want to see growth trends, churn rate, customer acquisition costs, the lifetime value of a customer, and a clear path to profitability. The more demonstrable progress you can show, the more likely you will secure funding.

Fundraising Advice

  • • Build Relationships Early: Connect with potential investors before you need their money. Establishing relationships early can make the actual fundraising process smoother.

  • • Be Selective: Not all money is good money. Ensure your investors align with your vision and can bring more than just cash.

  • • Show, Don't Just Tell: Prove your business model with accurate data. Demonstrate traction and momentum, and articulate your growth plan with detailed financial projections.

  • • Perfect Your Pitch: Your pitch deck should succinctly tell your start-up’s story, including the problem, unique solution, market size, business model, and the team making it happen.

Raising capital for your tech start-up is a significant task, but understanding each funding stage and its expectations makes you better equipped to secure the financial support you need. Don't forget every investor you meet—even the ones who say no—offers an opportunity to refine your pitch and gain valuable feedback. So, take each meeting as a stepping stone to the ultimate success of your tech start-up.



Navigating Pre-Seed and Seed Funding: Identifying and Engaging the Right Investors

Securing early-stage funding for your start-up is essential to kickstart your venture's growth journey. Here are some key points to consider when identifying who to approach for pre-seed and seed funding and how to do it effectively.

Who to Approach?

1. Friends and Family: These are often the first people entrepreneurs turn to for pre-seed funding. They are more likely to invest in you and your vision as they know you personally.

2. Angel Investors: Angel investors are high-net-worth individuals who provide capital for start-ups, usually in exchange for ownership equity. They can be a valuable source of early-stage funding and often bring industry knowledge and networks that can benefit your start-up.

3. Crowdfunding: Platforms like Kickstarter and Indiegogo allow you to tap into the power of the crowd to fund your idea. This route requires a compelling product and a strong marketing strategy to succeed.

4. Accelerators and Incubators: These programs offer funding, mentorship, and resources in exchange for equity. They can be an excellent way to develop your business idea and attract further investment rapidly.

5. Early-stage Venture Capitalists (VCs): Some VCs specialise in early-stage or seed investments. They're looking for high-potential businesses and are willing to take on the associated risks.

How to Approach?

1. Warm Introductions: A warm introduction is the best way to approach investors. Leverage your network to find someone who can introduce you to potential investors. LinkedIn can be a powerful tool for this.

2. Pitch Events and Networking: Participate in start-up events, pitch competitions, and networking sessions. These can provide valuable exposure and opportunities to meet investors.

3. Direct Outreach: Email or social media can be effective if you need a direct connection. Keep your message brief, engaging, and tailored to the individual you're contacting.

4. Online Platforms: Platforms like AngelList and Crunchbase connect start-ups with investors. Create a compelling profile and use these platforms to reach potential investors.

5. Apply to Accelerators and Incubators: If accepted, you'll not only receive funding but also mentorship, resources, and access to a network of potential investors.

When approaching investors, remember to tailor your pitch to them. Do your research and understand what they look for in a start-up. Show how your start-up aligns with their investment thesis. Be clear about how much funding you need and what it will be used for. Be ready to demonstrate your knowledge of the market, your product or service's unique value proposition, and your growth strategy. Remember, investors are investing not just in a business idea but in you and your team.

Unlocking the Code to a Successful Pitch Deck: Insights from Billion-Dollar Start-ups

As a founder, garnering the attention and buy-in of investors hinges on delivering a pitch that's not just good but exceptional. As an experienced HR consultant guiding start-ups through their growth phases, I’ve analysed numerous pitch decks from Unicorns (start-ups valued over $1bn) and found striking similarities. Unicorns have adopted a formula evident in their pitch decks - a trait they share with the established venture capitalist firms who see hundreds of pitches every year and appreciate a well-structured approach.

Pitch decks from successful start-ups are typically concise, ranging from 10 to 25 pages and follow a systematic presentation of ideas. Above all, they champion one indispensable trait: simplicity.

Stripping Back to the Essentials

The wisdom of Paul Graham, founder of Y Combinator, is instructive here. He advocates for reducing pitch decks to their basic elements, maintaining that a deck cluttered with words often deters people from reading. Aim for less than 20 words per slide and focus on conveying your message most straightforwardly. This minimalist approach extends to the duration of your pitch as well. Try to condense your presentation to about 10 minutes, ensuring that only the most crucial elements remain.

Moreover, Peter Diamandis, co-founder of X-Prize Foundation, emphasises the importance of a concise, one-liner pitch that encapsulates your idea and can be easily communicated.

Remember that the number of slides you should use varies depending on your needs and presentation style. However, drawing inspiration from successful start-ups like Uber, which uses 25 slides, can be a great starting point.

The Five-Second Rule

Renowned investor Vinod Khosla of Khosla Ventures uses a five-second rule to evaluate slides. He presents a five-second slide and then asks his audience to describe what they saw. Slides that are obscure or complicated fail this test.

The primary focus of successful pitch decks is twofold:

  1. 1. Demonstrating how the product functions.

  2. 2. Providing evidence that customers will find the product desirable.

Interestingly, elements like the business plan often take a backseat. Leading VCs, such as Kleiner Perkins of Caufield & Byers, understand that business models evolve, and the focus during the pitch should not be on the current business plan but on how you think about your venture.

Crafting the Perfect Pitch Deck

For a streamlined and effective pitch deck, consider following these steps:

  1. 1. Identify the problem your start-up addresses.

  2. 2. Propose your solution.

  3. 3. Assess the potential market size.

  4. 4. Elucidate your unique selling points.

  5. 5. Demonstrate your current progress.

  6. 6. Predict your future trajectory.

  7. 7. Showcase your team's expertise and track record.

Additionally, Khosla Ventures offers the following tips for pitch decks:

  • • Convey only one message per slide.

  • • Ensure slide titles summarise the key takeaway.

  • • Maintain clean, uncluttered visuals.

  • • Limit to 25 words per slide.

  • • Be precise and concise.

  • • Avoid extraneous elements.

  • • Highlight your company's competitive advantage; don't obscure or oversimplify technological breakthroughs.

  • • Don't overwhelm with too much financial data.

  • • Emphasise your team's strengths.

  • • Show that you are proactively managing risk.

  • • Elucidate your plan for the proposed funding.

  • • Use effective analogies, particularly about competitors.

  • • End on a high note, stirring emotion to capture your audience’s imagination.

Remember, the goal of your pitch deck is not only to secure funding but also to build enduring relationships with investors. Make your pitch a representation of your vision, drive, and potential.


Experience the talonX difference, where Purpose meets People and Process, and watch your start-up soar.

On this website, you will discover how HR and OKRs link directly to the successful execution of your strategy alongside a wealth of helpful information to help you on your start-up journey.

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